ActivaQ S.A. presents ImmuneTrack®, a technological platform which encompasses innate and adaptive immunity salmonid biomarkers for high throughput assessment throughout the entire productive cycle. Both ImmuneTrack®Innate, innate immunity evaluation service, and ImmuneTrack®Adaptive, adaptive immunity evaluation service, confer laboratory and industry solutions for the design, evaluation and selection of vaccines, adjuvant, diets, supplements amongst others.
The innate immune system comprises an organism’s first line of defense and includes physical, cellular and soluble barriers that either inhibit or eliminate a wide range of infectious microorganisms. The mechanisms that operate in this early response elicit the inhibition of replication and/or the elimination of the pathogen by phagocytosis, antiviral activity and inflammation. Variations in the expression of genes involved in these processes upon the application of a stimulus are altogether an indication of the immunogenicity caused by that particular stimulus.
ImmuneTrack®Innate quantifies by means of Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR) the expression of a set of genes (cytokines and other immune related factors) in salmonid tissue.
ImmuneTrack®Innate is available in two formats:
- ImmuneTrack®Innate KIT
- ImmuneTrack®Innate Service
ImmuneTrack®Innate biomarkers are:
IFN-α: viral replication
Mx-1: viral replication
C3: bacterial response
IFN-γ: inflammatory response
Adaptive or acquired immunity comprises a second line of immunological defense. It is specific for each pathogen and its importance is that includes immunological memory, responsible for preventing future infections. Lymphocytes are the main actors of this response, which can take two forms: either mediated by antibodies (humoral), and/or by two classes of lymphocytes, T cells and B cells, respectively.
Humoral response involves antibody (immunoglobulin) secretion by B cells. Antibody inactivates viruses and microbial toxins by blocking their ability to bond to host cell receptors or by tagging pathogens for their destruction by phagocytic cells of the innate immune system.
In acquired immune cellular responses, activated T lymphocytes react directly to an external antigen presented in the surface of a host cell. T cells can kill the infected host cell thus preventing further pathogen infection, or in other cases can produce signaling molecules, that activate macrophages for the destruction of the phagocytized microorganisms.
Other important molecules involved in the immune responses are cytokines, extracellular signal proteins or peptides that act as local mediators in cell to cell communication.
ImmuneTrack®Adaptive provides salmonid evaluation services for adaptive immune response and immunological memory with the use of different techniques designed to render complete analyses and efficient solutions.
ImmuneTrack®Adaptive is available in two formats:
- ImmuneTrack®Adaptive KIT
- ImmuneTrack®Adaptive Service
ImmuneTrack®Adaptive KIT cuantifies by means of Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR) the expresión of a set of genes (cytokines and other factors related to immunity) in salmonid tissue. ImmuneTrack®Adaptive KIT biomarkers are:
- IFN-γ: Intracellular pathogen response (Th1)
- IL-10: Extracellular pathogen response (Th2)
- TGF-ß; IL-10: Regulatory response
- CD4: CD4+ lymphocyte population
ImmuneTrack®Adaptive provides salmonid evaluation services for adaptive immune response and immunological memory with the use of different techniques designed to render complete analyses and efficient solutions. The analyses which our services offer are:
- Determination of CD4+ T lymphocyte population: by the use of anti CD4 antibodies and Real Time PCR assays (qRT-PCR)
- Immune response gene expression assay: biomarker evaluation as with ImmuneTrack®Adaptive KIT
- Antigen-specific Cellular Immunity: it measures,
- Splenocyte proliferation
- Flow Cytometry Quantification of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte population upon challenge with ISAV, IPNV, P.salmonis and vaccines.
- Humoral Immunity (ELISA): Specific antibody determination (IgM) for ISAV, IPNV and P.salmonis
- Immunological Memory: Antigen specific cellular immunity and humoral immunity are determined and evaluated at least 6 months post stimulus.
CD4 polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues localized in the extracellular region of salmon CD4. Antibodies were purified by affinity chromatography.
They can be used for salmon or trout immunomagnetic analyses, ELISA and immunohistochemical labeling, among others.